Beit Shemesh is essentially a suburb of Jerusalem. It feels like a very family-oriented city, full of many immigrants looking to settle down. There isn't much of interest here for the casual tourist.
This city neighbors Tel Aviv, and is a center for Ultra Orthodox Judaism. There isn't much of interest here for the casual tourist.
Although I was only there for a brief time, I got the impression that Eilat is a great little resort city. It is situated rather far away from the main Israeli cities (approx 4-5 hours by bus), but it has a coastline at the tip of the Red Sea.
Also known as "City of Gold," Jerusalem is the historical and cultural capital of Israel. Many of the famous sites offered by the country are in Jerusalem, such as the Wailing Wall and Temple Mount.
Commonly referred to as "Tsfat," Safed is hippie paradise in the land of Israel. It is a city known for its thriving art and music scenes, as well as a center for the study of Jewish mysticism. I'd highly recommend any trip to Israel include a stop here.
If Jerusalem is Israel's cultural capital, Tel Aviv is certainly the country's financial capital. It is an incredibly lively metropolis, fueled by a modern, but energetic vibe. Along with Beirut, it is a party capital of the Middle East.